Featured publications

  • Psychiatric disorders and SLC6A4 gene variants: possible effects on alcohol dependence and alzheimer's disease

    Authors: Calabrò M, Mandelli L, Crisafulli C, Porcelli S, Albani D, Politis A, Papadimitriou GN, Di Nicola M, Janiri L, Colombo R, Martinotti G, Bellomo A, Vieta E, Bonassi S, Frustaci A, Ducci G, Landi S, Boccia S, Serretti A.
    Reference: Molecular Biology Reports 2020; 47(1):191-200.
  • Genomic Relationships, Novel Loci, and Pleiotropic Mechanisms across Eight Psychiatric Disorders

    Authors: Lee, Phil H; Anttila, Verneri; Won, Hyejung; Feng, Yen-Chen A; Rosenthal, Jacob; Zhu, Zhaozhong; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Nivard, Michel G; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Posthuma, Danielle; Wang, Meg M-J; Yu, Dongmei; Stahl, Eli A; Walters, Ray-mond K; Anney, Richard J L; Duncan, Laramie E; Ge, Tian; Adolfsson, Rolf; Banaschewski, Tobias; Belangero, Sintia; Cook, Edwin H; Coppola, Giovanni; Derks, Eske M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Kirov, George; Kranzler, Henry R; Luykx, Jurjen J; Rohde, Luis A; Zai, Clement C; Agerbo, Esben; Arranz, M J; Asherson, Philip; Baekvad-Hansen, Marie; Baldursson, Gisli; Bellgrove, Mark; Belliveau, Richard A, Jr; Buitelaar, Jan; Burton, Christie L; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Casas, Miguel; Cerrato, Felecia; Chambert, Kimberly; Churchhouse, Claire; Gormand, Bru; Crosbie, Jennifer; Dalsgaard, Soren; Demontis, Ditte; Doyle, Alysa E; Dumont, Ashley; Elia, Josephine; Grove, Jakob; Gudmundsson, Olafur O; Haavik, Jan; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hansen, Christine S; Hartman, Catharina A; Hawi, Ziarih; Hervas, Amaia; Hougaard, David M; Howrigan, Daniel P; Huang, Hailiang; Kuntsi, Jonna; Langley, Kate; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Leung, Patrick W L; Loo, Sandra K; Martin, Joanna; Martin, Alicia R; McGough, James J; Medland, Sarah E; Moran, Jennifer L; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Oades, Robert D; Palmer, Duncan S; Pedersen, Carsten B; Pedersen, Marianne G; Peters, Triinu; Poterba, Timothy; Poulsen, Jesper B; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Reif, Andreas; Ribases, Marta; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rovira, Paula; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Satterstrom, F Kyle; Schachar, Russell; Artigas, Maria Soler; Steinberg, Stacy; Stefansson, Hreinn; Turley, Patrick; Walters, G Bragi; Werge, Thomas; Zayats, Tetyana; Arking, Dan E; Bettella, Francesco; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Christensen, Jane H; Collins, Ryan L; Coon, Hilary; De Rubeis, Silvia; Delorme, Richard; Grice, Dorothy E; Hansen, Thomas F; Holmans, Peter A; Hope, Sigrun; Hultman, Christina M; Klei, Lambertus; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Magnusson, Pall; NrIand, Terje; Nyegaard, Mette; Pinto, Dalila; Qvist, Per; Rehnstrom, Karola; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reichert, Jennifer; Roeder, Kathryn; Rouleau, Guy A; Saemundsen, Evald; Sanders, Stephan J; Sandin, Sven; St Pourcain, Beate; Stefansson, Kari; Sutcliffe, James S; Talkowski, Michael E; Weiss, Lauren A; Willsey, A Jeremy; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Albani, Diego; Alda, Martin; Als, Thomas D; Anjorin, Adebayo; Backlund, Lena; Bass, Nicholas; Bauer, Michael; Baune, Bernhard T; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E; Berrettini, Wade H; Biernacka, Joanna M; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Boen, Erlend; Budde, Monika; Bunney, William; Burmeister, Margit; Byerley, William; Byrne, Enda M; Cichon, Sven; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan R, I; Craddock, Nicholas; Curtis, David; Czerski, Piotr M; Dale, Anders M; Dalkner, Nina; Dannlowski, Udo; Degenhardt, Franziska; Di Florio, Arianna; Elvsashagen, Torbjorn; Etain, Bruno; Fischer, Sascha B; Forstner, Andreas J; Forty, Liz; Frank, Josef; Frye, Mark; Fullerton, Janice M; Gade, Katrin; Gaspar, Helena A; Gershon, Elliot S; Gill, Michael; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Melissa J; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Guzman-Parra, Jose; Hauser, Joanna; Hautzinger, Martin; Heilbronner, Urs; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Holland, Dominic; Jamain, Stephane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa A; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Kelsoe, John R; Kennedy, James L; Joachim, Oedegaard Ketil; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koller, Anna C; Lavebratt, Catharina; Lewis, Cathryn M; Li, Qingqin S; Lissowska, Jolanta; Loohuis, Loes M O; Lucae, Susanne; Maaser, Anna; Malt, Ulrik F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martinsson, Lina; McElroy, Susan L; McMahon, Francis J; McQuillin, Andrew; Melle, Ingrid; Metspalu, Andres; Millischer, Vincent; Mitchell, Philip B; Montgomery, Grant W; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mullins, Niamh; Myers, Richard M; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Nordentoft, Merete; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Nothen, Markus M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Michael J; Paciga, Sara A; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Perlis, Roy H; Perry, Amy; Potash, James B; Reinbold, Celine S; Rietschel, Marcella; Rivera, Margarita; Roberson, Mary; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R; Schulze, Thomas G; Scott, Laura J; Serretti, Alessandro; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Smeland, Olav B; Stordal, Eystein; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Treutlein, Jens; Turecki, Gustavo; Vaaler, Arne E; Vieta, Eduard; Vincent, John B; Wang, Yunpeng; Witt, Stephanie H; Zandi, Peter; Adan, Roger A H; Alfredsson, Lars; Ando, Tetsuya; Aschauer, Harald; Baker, Jessica H; Bencko, Vladimir; Bergen, Andrew W; Birgegard, Andreas; Perica, Vesna Boraska; Brandt, Harry; Burghardt, Roland; Carlberg, Laura; Cassina, Matteo; Clementi, Maurizio; Courtet, Philippe; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Crowley, James J; Danner, Unna N; Davis, Oliver S P; Degortes, Daniela; DeSocio, Janiece E; Dick, Danielle M; Dina, Christian; Docampo, Elisa; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Fichter, Manfred M; Foretova, Lenka; Forzan, Monica; Gambaro, Giovanni; Giegling, Ina; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Gorwood, Philip; Mayora, Monica Gratacos; Guo, Yiran; Halmi, Katherine A; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Hinney, Anke; Imgart, Hartmut; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Johnson, Craig; Jordan, Jennifer; Julia, Antonio; Kaminska, Deborah; Karhunen, Leila; Karwautz, Andreas; Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Kennedy, Martin A; Kim, Youl-Ri; Klareskog, Lars; Klump, Kelly L; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S; Landen, Mikael; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Levitan, Robert D; Li, Dong; Lichtenstein, Paul; Maj, Mario; Marsal, Sara; McDevitt, Sara; Mitchell, James; Monteleone, Palmiero; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Nacmias, Benedetta; Navratilova, Marie; O'Toole, Julie K; Padyukov, Leonid; Pantel, Jacques; Papezova, Hana; Rabionet, Raquel; Raevuori, Anu; Ramoz, Nicolas; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ricca, Valdo; Roberts, Marion; Rujescu, Dan; Rybakowski, Filip; Scherag, Andre; Schmidt, Ulrike; Seitz, Jochen; Slachtova, Lenka; Landt, Margarita C T Slof-Op't; Slopien, Agnieszka; Sorbi, Sandro; Southam, Lorraine; Strober, Michael; Tortorella, Alfonso; Tozzi, Federica; Treasure, Janet; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Wade, Tracey D; Wagner, Gudrun; Walton, Esther; Watson, Hunna J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Woodside, D Blake; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zerwas, Stephanie; Zipfel, Stephan; Adams, Mark J; Andlauer, Till F M; Berger, Klaus; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boomsma, Dorret, I; Castelao, Enrique; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Direk, Nese; Docherty, Anna R; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Dunn, Erin C; Foo, Jerome C; de Geus, E J C; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Howard, David; Sing, Marcus; Kloiber, Stefan; Levinson, Douglas F; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mbarek, Hamdi; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mostafavi, Sara; Nyholt, Dale R; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Peterson, Roseann E; Pistis, Giorgio; Porteous, David J; Preisig, Martin; Quiroz, Jorge A; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulte, Eva C; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Daniel J; Thomson, Pippa A; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; van der Auwera, Sandra; Weissman, Myrna M; Alexander, Madeline; Begemann, Martin; Bramon, Elvira; Buccola, Nancy G; Cairns, Murray J; Campion, Dominique; Carr, Vaughan J; Cloninger, C Robert; Cohen, David; Collier, David A; Corvin, Aiden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Donohoe, Gary; Dudbridge, Frank; Duan, Jubao; Freedman, Robert; Gejman, Pablo, V; Golimbet, Vera; Godard, Stephanie; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hartmann, Annette M; Henskens, Frans A; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen, V; Joa, Inge; Jonsson, Erik G; Kelly, Brian J; Knight, Jo; Konte, Bettina; Laurent-Levinson, Claudine; Lee, Jimmy; Lencz, Todd; Lerer, Bernard; Loughland, Carmel M; Malhotra, Anil K; Mallet, Jacques; McDonald, CoIm; Mitjans, Marina; Mowry, Bryan J; Murphy, Kieran C; Murray, Robin M; O'Neill, F Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Palotie, Aarno; Pantelis, Christos; Pulver, Ann E; Petryshen, Tracey L; Quested, Digby J; Riley, Brien; Sanders, Alan R; Schall, Ulrich; Schwab, Sibylle G; Scott, Rodney J; Sham, Pak C; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sim, Kang; Steixner, Agnes A; Tooney, Paul A; van Os, Jim; Vawter, Marquis P; Walsh, Dermot; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B; Williams, Nigel M; Wormley, Brandon K; Zhang, Fuquan; Androutsos, Christos; Arnold, Paul D; Barr, Cathy L; Barta, Csaba; Bey, Katharina; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Brown, Lawrence W; Budman, Cathy; Cath, Danielle; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Ciullo, Valentina; Coffey, Barbara J; Cusi, Daniele; Davis, Lea K; Denys, Damiaan; Depienne, Christel; Dietrich, Andrea; Eapen, Valsamma; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas, V; Garcia-Delgar, Blanca; Geller, Daniel A; Gilbert, Donald L; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Erica; Grunblatt, Edna; Hagstrom, Julie; Hanna, Gregory L; Hartmann, Andreas; Hedderly, Tammy; Heiman, Gary A; Heyman, Isobel; Hong, Hyun Ju; Huang, Alden; Huyser, Chaim; Ibanez-Gomez, Laura; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A; Kim, Young Key; Kim, Young-Shin; King, Robert A; Koh, Yun-Joo; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Kook, Sodahm; Kuperman, Samuel; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lochner, Christine; Ludolph, Andrea G; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Malaty, Irene; Maras, Athanasios; McCracken, James T; Meijer, Inge A; Mir, Pablo; Morer, Astrid; Mueller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Munchau, Alexander; Murphy, Tara L; Naarden, Allan; Nagy, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Nestadt, Paul S; Nicolini, Humberto; Nurmi, Erika L; Okun, Michael S; Paschou, Peristera; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Plessen, Kerstin J; Richter, Margaret A; Rizzo, Renata; Robertson, Mary; Roessner, Veit; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Samuels, Jack F; Sandor, Paul; Schlogelhofer, Monika; Shin, Eun-Young; Singer, Harvey; Song, Dong-Ho; Song, Jungeun; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stein, Dan J; Stewart, S Evelyn; Storch, Eric A; Stranger, Barbara; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Tarnok, Zsanett; Tischfield, Jay A; Tubing, Jennifer; Visscher, Frank; Vulink, Nienke; Wagner, Michael; Walitza, Susanne; Wanderer, Sina; Woods, Martin; Worbe, Yulia; Zai, Gwyneth; Zinner, Samuel H; Sullivan, Patrick F; Franke, Barbara; Daly, Mark J; Bulik, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Andrew M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Zheutlin, Amanda; Andreassen, Ole A; Borglum, Anders D; Breen, Gerome; Edenberg, Howard J; Fanous, Ayman H; Faraone, Stephen, V; Gelernter, Joel; Mathews, Carol A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mitchell, Karen S; Neale, Michael C; Nurnberger, John, I; Ripke, Stephan; Santangelo, Susan L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Stein, Murray B; Thornton, Laura M; Walters, James T R; Wray, Naomi R; Geschwind, Daniel H; Neale, Benjamin M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Smoller, Jordan W;Psychiat Genomics Consortium; 23andMe Res Team; Psychosis Endopheno-types Int Cons; Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consor.
    Reference: Cell 2019; 179(7):1469-1482.
  • Bipolar disorders.

    Authors: Vieta E, Berk M, Schulze TG, Carvalho AF, Suppes T, Calabrese JR, Gao K, Miskowiak KW, Grande I.
    Reference: Nature Reviews Disease Primers 2018; 4(18008):18008-.
  • Association of Polygenic Score for Schizophrenia and HLA Antigen and Inflammation Genes With Response to Lithium in Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Authors: , Amare AT, Schubert KO, Hou L, Clark SR, Papiol S, Heilbronner U, Degenhardt F, Tekola-Ayele F, Hsu YH, Shekhtman T, Adli M, Akula N, Akiyama K, Ardau R, Arias B, Aubry JM, Backlund L, Bhattacharjee AK, Bellivier F, Benabarre A, Bengesser S, Biernacka JM, Birner A, Brichant-Petitjean C, Cervantes P, Chen HC, Chillotti C, Cichon S, Cruceanu C, Czerski PM, Dalkner N, Dayer A, Del Zompo M, DePaulo JR, Étain B, Falkai P, Forstner AJ, Frisen L, Frye MA, Fullerton JM, Gard S, Garnham JS, Goes FS, Grigoroiu-Serbanescu M, Grof P, Hashimoto R, Hauser J, Herms S, Hoffmann P, Hofmann A, Jamain S, Jiménez E, Kahn JP, Kassem L, Kuo PH, Kato T, Kelsoe J, Kittel-Schneider S, Kliwicki S, König B, Kusumi I, Laje G, Landén M, Lavebratt C, Leboyer M, Leckband SG, Tortorella A, Manchia M, Martinsson L, McCarthy MJ, McElroy S, Colom F, Mitjans M, Mondimore FM, Monteleone P, Nievergelt CM, Nöthen MM, Novák T, O'Donovan C, Ozaki N, Ösby U, Pfennig A, Potash JB, Reif A, Reininghaus E, Rouleau GA, Rybakowski JK, Schalling M, Schofield PR, Schweizer BW, Severino G, Shilling PD, Shimoda K, Simhandl C, Slaney CM, Squassina A, Stamm T, Stopkova P, Maj M, Turecki G, Vieta E, Volkert J, Witt S, Wright A, Zandi PP, Mitchell PB, Bauer M, Alda M, Rietschel M, McMahon FJ, Schulze TG, Baune BT International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen).
    Reference: Jama Psychiatry 2018; 75(1):65-74.
  • Genome-wide association study of 40,000 individuals identifies two novel loci associated with bipolar disorder

    Authors: Hou L, Bergen SE, Akula N, Song J, Hultman CM, Landén M, Adli M, Alda M, Ardau R, Arias B, Aubry JM, Backlund L, Badner JA, Barrett TB, Bauer M, Baune BT, Bellivier F, Benabarre A, Bengesser S, Berrettini WH, Bhattacharjee AK, Biernacka JM, Birner A, Bloss CS, Brichant-Petitjean C, Bui ET, Byerley W, Cervantes P, Chillotti C, Cichon S, Colom F, Coryell W, Craig DW, Cruceanu C, Czerski PM, Davis T, Dayer A, Degenhardt F, Del Zompo M, DePaulo JR, Edenberg HJ, Étain B, Falkai P, Foroud T, Forstner AJ, Frisén L, Frye MA, Fullerton JM, Gard S, Garnham JS, Gershon ES, Goes FS, Greenwood TA, Grigoroiu-Serbanescu M, Hauser J, Heilbronner U, Heilmann-Heimbach S, Herms S, Hipolito M, Hitturlingappa S, Hoffmann P, Hofmann A, Jamain S, Jiménez E, Kahn JP, Kassem L, Kelsoe JR, Kittel-Schneider S, Kliwicki S, Koller DL, König B, Lackner N, Laje G, Lang M, Lavebratt C, Lawson WB, Leboyer M, Leckband SG, Liu C, Maaser A, Mahon PB, Maier W, Maj M, Manchia M, Martinsson L, McCarthy MJ, McElroy SL, McInnis MG, McKinney R, Mitchell PB, Mitjans M, Mondimore FM, Monteleone P, Mühleisen TW, Nievergelt CM, Nöthen MM, Novák T, Nurnberger JI, Nwulia EA, Ösby U, Pfennig A, Potash JB, Propping P, Reif A, Reininghaus E, Rice J, Rietschel M, Rouleau GA, Rybakowski JK, Schalling M, Scheftner WA, Schofield PR, Schork NJ, Schulze TG, Schumacher J, Schweizer BW, Severino G, Shekhtman T, Shilling PD, Simhandl C, Slaney CM, Smith EN, Squassina A, Stamm T, Stopkova P, Streit F, Strohmaier J, Szelinger S, Tighe SK, Tortorella A, Turecki G, Vieta E, Volkert J, Witt SH, Wright A, Zandi PP, Zhang P, Zollner S, McMahon FJ.
    Reference: Human Molecular Genetics 2016; 25(15):3383-3394.
  • Bipolar disorder

    Authors: Grande, I; Berk, M; Birmaher, B; Vieta, E.
    Reference: Lancet 2016; 387(10027):1561-1572.
  • Genetic variants associated with response to lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: a genome-wide association study

    Authors: Hou L; Heilbronner U; Degenhardt F; Adli M; Akiyama K; Akula N; Ardau R; Arias B; Backlund L; Banzato CEM; Benabarre A; Bengesser S; Bhattacharjee AK; Biernacka JM; Birner A; Brichant-Petitjean C; Bui ET; Cervantes P; Chen GB; Chen HC; Chillotti C; Cichon S; Clark SR; Colom F; Cousins DA; Cruceanu C; Czerski PM; Dantas CR; Dayer A; Étain B; Falkai P; Forstner AJ; Frisén L; Fullerton JM; Gard S; Garnham JS; Goes FS; Grof P; Gruber O; Hashimoto R; Hauser J; Herms S; Hoffmann P; Hofmann A; Jamain S; Jiménez E; Kahn JP; Kassem L; Kittel-Schneider S; Kliwicki S; König B; Kusumi I; Lackner N; Laje G; Landén M; Lavebratt C; Leboyer M; Leckband SG; Jaramillo CAL; MacQueen G; Manchia M; Martinsson L; Mattheisen M; McCarthy MJ; McElroy SL; Mitjans M; Mondimore FM; Monteleone P; Nievergelt CM; Nöthen MM; Ösby U; Ozaki N; Perlis RH; Pfennig A; Reich-Erkelenz D; Rouleau GA; Schofield PR; Schubert KO; Schweizer BW; Seemüller F; Severino G; Shekhtman T; Shilling PD; Shimoda K; Simhandl C; Slaney CM; Smoller JW; Squassina A; Stamm T; Stopkova P; Tighe SK; Tortorella A; Turecki G; Volkert J; Witt S; Wright A; Young LT; Zandi PP; Potash JB; DePaulo JR; Bauer M; Reininghaus EZ; Novák T; Aubry JM; Maj M; Baune BT; Mitchell PB; Vieta E; Frye MA; Rybakowski JK; Kuo PH; Kato T; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu M; Reif A; Del Zompo M; Bellivier F; Schalling M; Wray NR; Kelsoe JR; Alda M; Rietschel M; McMahon FJ; Schulze TG.
    Reference: Lancet 2016; 387(10023):1085-93-1093.
  • Functional remediation in bipolar disorder: 1-year follow-up of neurocognitive and functional outcome

    Authors: Bonnin CM, Torrent C, Arango C, Amann BL, Solé B, González-Pinto A, Crespo JM, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Reinares M, Ayuso-Mateos JL, García-Portilla MP, Ibañez Á, Salamero M, Vieta E, Martinez-Aran A, CIBERSAM Functional Remediation Group.
    Reference: British Journal Of Psychiatry 2016; 208(1):87-93.
  • The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Authors: Undurraga, Juan; Colom, Francesc; Valenti, Marc; Vieta, Eduard.
    Reference: American Journal Of Psychiatry 2013; 170(11):1249-1262.
  • Efficacy of functional remediation in bipolar disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Authors: Ayuso Mateos, Jose Luis; Torrent, Carla; Anaya, Celia; Subira, Marta; Custal, Nuria; Menchon, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard.
    Reference: American Journal Of Psychiatry 2013; 170(8):852-859.