Causes or risk factors of Bunion

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The causes of hallux valgus are not always well-defined and vary in each person. For this reason, more attention is paid to the factors that predispose their onset, and that are known. In order for the big toe to be well aligned, there must be an equilibrium between the different muscles that act at this level. This equilibrium is sensitive to external or internal factors, which act as facilitating factors.

Thus, there is a consensus on some factors that act by facilitating its development:

Heeled shoes

Kind of footwear. Narrow, pointed footwear and / or with an excessively high heel.

Family tree

A familial disposition (the bunion is not hereditary, but it is the predisposition of certain characteristics of the bones and joints or the resistance of the ligaments).


Being female.

It is very possible that these three factors act together. Thus, a familial predisposition due to a specific foot form or due to a greater elasticity of the ligaments, also common in females, associated with an excessive use of a very triangular shoe, are the most usual predisposing scenarios.

Other risk factors

Hand with the fingers pulled back due to joint hyperlaxity

Hyperlaxity (hypermobility) (occasionally associated with a wide foot).

Foot with the big toe longer than the second toe

Egyptian foot. A type of foot where the big toe is longer than the second (excessively long big toe).

Flat feet

Flat foot (valgus).

Woman growing older from childhood to old age

Age. Hallux valgus generally presents between 40 and 50 years of age.

Symbol of the woman and a watch

The menopause.

Overweight, obese person, representing obesity

Obesity. Causes pronation of the foot that facilitates the appearance of hallux valgus.

Substantiated information by:

Cristina Casals Crosas
Daniel Poggio Cano
Jessica Martínez Castillejo
Jordi Fluvià Creus

Published: 20 February 2018
Updated: 20 February 2018

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