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The causes of hallux valgus are not always well-defined and vary in each person. For this reason, more attention is paid to the factors that predispose their onset, and that are known. In order for the big toe to be well aligned, there must be an equilibrium between the different muscles that act at this level. This equilibrium is sensitive to external or internal factors, which act as facilitating factors.
Thus, there is a consensus on some factors that act by facilitating its development:
Kind of footwear. Narrow, pointed footwear and / or with an excessively high heel.
A familial disposition (the bunion is not hereditary, but it is the predisposition of certain characteristics of the bones and joints or the resistance of the ligaments).
It is very possible that these three factors act together. Thus, a familial predisposition due to a specific foot form or due to a greater elasticity of the ligaments, also common in females, associated with an excessive use of a very triangular shoe, are the most usual predisposing scenarios.
Other risk factors
Hyperlaxity (hypermobility) (occasionally associated with a wide foot).
Egyptian foot. A type of foot where the big toe is longer than the second (excessively long big toe).
Flat foot (valgus).
Age. Hallux valgus generally presents between 40 and 50 years of age.
Obesity. Causes pronation of the foot that facilitates the appearance of hallux valgus.