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The current lines of investigation in prostate cancer research can be divided into three groups:
Diagnostic methods. Prostate cancer diagnosis is performed by confirming the presence of a tumour using a prostate biopsy. It has been observed that prostate biopsies may work better if they are performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance which indicates whether there are injuries to the prostate, and where they are located. In this case, the biopsy will be done by locating the injury described by the NMR using an ultrasound scan, and directing the biopsies to this region, as well as performing biopsies on the rest of the prostate. Currently, scans that allow the image from the nuclear magnetic resonance to be fused with the ultrasound image are being incorporated to perform a fusion biopsy.
Types of surgery. The surgical treatment of prostate cancer uses various techniques. The most commonly used technique is extracting the whole prostate (radical prostatectomy). Another surgical procedure for the treatment of prostate tumours is cryotherapy, which is a comprehensive treatment for the prostate with phases of freezing and defrosting. Selective treatment of the prostate wounds described by the NMR, without treating the entire prostate, is beginning to be evaluated.
Medication treatment. A prostate tumour is a cancer that is closely related to testosterone. In advanced phases of the illness, hormonal treatments tend to be administered. There are various trials with new drugs for the treatment of the more advanced phases of the illness. The healthcare team will assess the case and will suggest which trials the patient may enter.