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Urinary tract infection is an infection that occurs in the urinary system and is suspected if the following characteristics are found: symptoms related to urination (e.g. pain, increased frequency but decreased urine volume or pain above the pubis) and finding urinary tract germs in a urine sample from the patient.
Depending on the area of the urinary system infected, different symptoms and signs may occur and the diseases are named differently:
- If the urethra is infected: Urethritis
- If the bladder is infected: Cystitis
- If the prostate is infected: Prostatitis
- If the kidney is infected: Pyelonephritis
- If a testicle is infected: Epididymitis or Orchiepididymitis
Cystitis and urethritis are the only urinary tract infections that do not cause fever.
Urinary tract infection explained in first person
Professionals and patients explain how you live with the disease
50-60% of women will have a urinary tract infection episode; this also represents 40% of nosocomial infections.
The infection will have different features and evolution depending on the microorganism that causes it and the different individual factors for each patient. The more aggressive the germ, the easier it is to colonise the urinary system and the more serious the infection will be.
If there are susceptible factors for the patient, the infection will be more common and serious. For example, immunosuppressed people, obstruction within the urinary system, significant residual urine after urination or the presence of probes, catheters or stones.
The vast majority of germs that cause urinary tract infection are from the digestive system. Thus, it is important to control digestion disorders to prevent or treat a urinary tract infection (e.g. by controlling constipation or changes in the intestinal microbiota).
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Substantiated information by:
Ascensión Gómez PorcelNurseUrology Department
Pilar LuqueUrologistUrology Department
Verónica Rico CaballeroInfectious diseases specialistInfectious Disease Service
Published: 30 March 2022
Updated: 30 March 2022
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