Physical activity, physical exercise and fitness
Differentiating between physical activity, physical exercise and fitness is important:
- Physical activity. Physical activity includes any body movement produced by the skeletal muscle system that results in energy expenditure above the basal metabolic rate (that is, the amount of energy used for the body’s basic functioning).
- Physical exercise. Physical exercise is planned, structured and repetitive physical activity whose purpose is to improve or maintain one or more components of the body's physical condition. It is called sport when it is done within a regulatory and competitive framework.
- Fitness. Fitness is the energy and vitality level that allows individuals to do regular daily tasks, enjoy active free time and deal with unexpected emergencies without tiring themselves. Fitness is said to have four components:
- Cardiovascular resistance. The ability to resist fatigue and recover quickly after making physical effort. That effort includes aerobic activities (those that move large muscle groups and allow individuals to make long-lasting efforts, since there is no lack of oxygen) such as walking, cycling, swimming, dancing, climbing and descending stairs and working in the garden.
- Strength. The ability of the muscle or muscle groups to generate intramuscular tension under specific conditions. Strength affects the neuromuscular system, prevents loss of muscle mass and maintains and prolongs elderly people's autonomy. For example, climbing stairs, gaining weight, doing specific exercises using only the body or using equipment in sports facilities such as health parks or gyms.
- Flexibility. The ability to stretch, lengthen and bend without difficulty. It is beneficial for health because it prevents loss of joint mobility that leads to inactivity and improves postural hygiene. It is maintained through stretching or activities such as Tai chi or yoga.
- Balance. The ability to hold a position against gravity, such as when one foot is off the ground. Helps maintain functionality in daily living activities and prevent falls. It can be developed with activities such as Tai chi or yoga.
Types of physical activity
Light activity. Light activity is activities that require minimal effort where the individual’s body does not undergo much physiological modifications when performing them. Some examples of light physical activity are:
Low-intensity household chores.
Climbing stairs slowly.
Taking a walk.
Getting up from sitting down.
Moderate activity. When an individual does physical activity and their breathing and pulsations become quick, but that activity still allows them to continue a conversation. Some examples:
Walking at a brisk pace (1 kilometre every 10 minutes).
Actively playing with children.
Cycling at a leisurely pace.
Working in the garden (sweeping leaves or mowing the lawn).
Cleaning the home.
Vigorous activity. Physical activities that increases the individual’s heart rate substantially and when their breathing is too heavy and fast to have a conversation. Some examples:
Most competitive sports.
Strengthening the organism’s physical qualities and improving its functioning.
Increasing individuals’ life expectancy and quality of life.
Preventing or improving certain diseases.
Regulating blood pressure.
Increasing or maintaining bone density.
Improving insulin resistance.
Decreasing or maintaining body weight.
Improving sleep hygiene.
Fostering social relations and positive values.
Improving mental health.
Improving memory, learning skills and school performance.