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The duration of the transplant depends on several factors: the patient’s state of health prior to the transplant, the presence of uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, etc., as well as the type of immunosuppressive treatment, recipient age, donor type and age, and compliance with immunosuppressive treatments and dietary recommendations. In optimal conditions the transplant will usually last 10–15 years, or even 20 years, but the results are highly variable.
Nowadays, re-transplantation is also possible. If the kidney fails completely, a new transplant can be carried out from a living donor before starting dialysis, or by re-starting dialysis and waiting for a cadaveric donor.