Female-to-male surgery

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  • Masculinisation mastectomy 

Masculinisation mastectomy is the surgical technique by which breast tissue is removed. The aim of this procedure is to achieve a smooth and symmetrical chest that is anatomically and aesthetically masculine. 

Hysterectomy and adnexectomy are the surgical techniques used to remove the uterus and ovaries. The purpose of this procedure is to avoid the effect of female hormones produced by the ovaries, as well as any possible diseases that may affect the internal female genitalia. Some studies indicate that taking male hormones increases the likelihood of disorders such as uterine cancer. It is also the basis for subsequent genital surgery. 

  • Metoidioplasty 

The purpose of gender confirmation surgery from biological female to transgender male is to create male external genitalia, in accordance with the person's gender. The genitals should allow for normal urinary function (i.e., urinating in an upright position) and satisfactory erogenous stimulation. 

Metoidioplasty enables the reconstruction of a microphallus or neopenis of about 3 to 6 centimetres in length by 1.5 to 2 centimetres in diameter. This neopenis meets most functional requirements, it is erogenous, but the result does not allow sexual penetration. 

  • Phalloplasty 

Like metoidioplasty, phalloplasty is another type of gender confirmation surgery from biological female to transsexual male, with the same objectives. 

In the case of phalloplasty, the genitals must allow normal urinary function, i.e., urinating in an upright position and the possibility of penetration. Phalloplasty enables the creation of a penis of about 12 to 13 cm in length with the capacity for penetration thanks to a prosthesis. This type of surgical technique involves the reconstruction of a neopenis from fasciocutaneous flaps from various parts of the body which are attached to the genital area. 

Substantiated information by:

Mauricio Raigosa García

Published: 14 December 2021
Updated: 14 December 2021


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