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In the middle of the last century, it was believed that psoriasis was caused by an epidermal alteration, so the first treatments were directed at treating the disorder. Later, it was thought that skin inflammation was responsible for psoriasis, and non‑steroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs were administered to combat inflammatory proteins. In the late 1990s, the development of monoclonal antibodies marked a breakthrough in the study of various inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. These antibodies allowed us to detect the cells involved in the manufacture of the proteins (interleukins) responsible for the inflammation in psoriasis, and it was found to be a systemic immune disease that did not only affect the skin. In the past two decades, a large number of interleukins have been discovered that are specifically related to psoriasis lesions, both cutaneous and articular, and drugs have been developed that act against these interleukins: the so‑called biological drugs.
The main lines of research are studies aimed at finding more effective and specific biological drugs that act against the newly discovered interleukins and which cause the fewest undesirable effects, such as infections. The purpose of the clinical trials being carried out in hospitals is to test the effectiveness and safety of biological therapies that affect interleukin 17 and interleukin 23.