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Retinal diseases are alterations that affect the nerve tissue that lines the inside of the eye and captures the images transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve. The most relevant due to their frequency or severity are diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal detachment (RD). These diseases progress without treatment, so the main objective is to slow their progression. Some cases recover vision, but others may worsen even with treatment.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and is the world's leading cause of blindness in adults aged 20-74 years. In industrialised societies, it is responsible for 15% of cases of legal blindness in the population. The prevalence of DR in DM patients is estimated to be 30%, and is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades.
AMD is a painless disease of the centre of the retina (macula). It affects central vision and impedes normal activities such as reading, sewing and driving.
Retinal detachment is when the retina separates from the wall of the eye, causing progressive loss of vision (first peripheral and then affecting the entire visual field). It eventually causes permanent loss of vision and requires urgent surgical treatment.
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