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Optic neuritis is inflammation of the eye’s optic nerve. The optic nerve is formed by a bundle of nerve fibres that carries light signals from the back of the eye to the brain, allowing us to see our surroundings. If the optic nerve is inflamed, injured or infected, the person will have blurred vision.
It is estimated that it affects 5 in every 100,000 people. It most commonly affects Caucasian women aged between 20 and 40 years.
Optic neuritis explained in first person
Professionals and patients explain how you live with the disease
It’s true that some cases do evolve more unfavourably; but the vast majority, 93%, have very good vision after suffering an episode of nerve inflammation.
My lifestyle hasn't changed since the optic neuritis, the only thing is that sometimes my eye hurts a little when I'm tired but nothing else.
The cause of neuritis is not exactly known, but it could be that the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath covering the optic nerve.
What is myelin?
Myelin is a sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. It is composed of proteins and fats.
This myelin sheath allows electrical impulses to be processed quickly and efficiently along the neurons. When there is an issue with the myelin, these impulses become slower, which can cause disease.
Optic neuritis can be associated with different diseases:
Multiple sclerosis: this is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheath covering the nerves in the brain. People with optic neuritis have a 50% chance of developing multiple sclerosis over the course of their lives. People with multiple sclerosis are also more likely to have optic neuritis.
Neuromyelitis optica: a type of inflammation that affects the optic nerve and the spinal cord. It is similar to multiple sclerosis, but the brain is not as badly damaged. Nevertheless, it is more severe than multiple sclerosis, meaning people often recover more poorly from neuromyelitis.
Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disorder: this is a disease that can affect the optic nerve, brain or spinal cord. Relapses are common in this disease, but recovery from flare-ups tends to be better than in neuromyelitis optica.
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Substantiated information by:
Anna Camós CarrerasOphthalmologist
Published: 15 June 2022
Updated: 15 June 2022
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