Some women who experience urinary incontinence sometimes disregard it because it only happens very occasionally, in very small quantities or it doesn’t interfere with their well-being, and so they don’t need to visit a doctor or receive any treatment. Contrastingly, in other women, urinary incontinence is detrimental and so they need to be aware of the treatment options available for each type of incontinence.

A high percentage of women with urinary incontinence who receive personalised treatment indicated by specialists manage to cure or significantly improve their symptoms.

There are several treatments for urinary incontinence. Treatment selection, which may involve a single therapy or a combination, is based on each patient’s characteristics, symptoms and the severity of their incontinence.

Conservative treatment includes a set of measures that do not involve surgery or taking medication. It is recommended for all women regardless of the type of incontinence they may have.

Scale with a down arrow indicating a weight loss

Lose weight. In overweight or obese women, it has been proven that a 5–10% weight decrease can reduce the weekly episodes of urinary incontinence by up to 50%. Individuals are therefore advised to lose weight through their diets and by exercising.

Carrot, broccoli and courgette

Improve bowel transit. Reduce the effort required to defecate by following diet guidelines to improve chronic constipation; this will help avoid weakening the pelvic floor muscles.

Cigarette crossed out on a "no smoking" poster

Quit smoking. Will decrease the chronic cough and the impact on the pelvic floor muscles, and so you will experience fewer episodes of urinary incontinence. Furthermore, tobacco is a bladder stimulant, so quitting will also improve symptoms of urinary urgency.

Mug with hot drink crossed out

Reduce intake or stop consuming bladder stimulants. Coffee, tea, alcoholic, fizzy, artificially sweetened and energy drinks, etc., all produce bladder spasms. Reducing consumption benefits women with symptoms of urinary urgency and an increased frequency.

Crossed-out water bottle

Control fluid intake. You should consume around 1.5 litres of fluids per day. It is important to remember that a balanced diet already provides a portion of your required fluid intake. Individuals with urge or nocturnal incontinence should therefore try not to drink any liquids after mid-afternoon.

Sweating woman carrying two bags

Moderate physical strain
It is important to practise daily physical exercise. However, women with stress incontinence or significant muscle weakness should avoid physical efforts that imply a risk for the pelvic floor muscles. In this regard, they are advised to practise activities such as walking, swimming or any others that help achieve good physical form without putting pressure on the abdomen.
As a precautionary measure, you should always try to contract the pelvic floor muscles whenever practising physical exercise in order to counteract abdominal pressure and prevent possible episodes of urinary incontinence.

Woman training pelvic muscles with a pilates ball

Pelvic floor muscle training programme. The purpose of these exercises is to reinforce the muscles around the vaginal and anal region in order to increase the individual’s control over urine leaks. You should only attempt pelvic floor muscle exercises after being assessed by the corresponding healthcare professionals.

Vaginal cones or spheres

Devices. There are several devices available to help improve muscle strength in cases of urinary incontinence, such as vaginal cones or spheres, pessaries or tampons for incontinence.

Drug therapies are well-suited to women diagnosed with urge urinary incontinence or overactive bladder. There are currently several medicines available that decrease the number of involuntary bladder spasms and relax the muscle that contracts the bladder. Some drugs are contraindicated in patients with glaucoma, pyloric stenosis, severe bronchospasm, reflux oesophagitis, intestinal ileum, severe ulcerative well as in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure). Patients are advised to attend a follow-up appointment 4 weeks after starting drug therapy to check whether the treatment is suitable. If symptoms improve you will continue with the medicine, in cases of little or no improvement the doctor may adjust the dose or try a different medication.

The symptoms of urinary incontinence do not always improve with drug therapies. In these cases the possibility of administering second-line treatments in specialised units is evaluated. These include:


Botulinum toxin. Is a substance used extensively in medicine. It is indicated in women with an overactive detrusor muscle (which squeezes the bladder) to relax the bladder.

Sacral nerve stimulation

Sacral nerve stimulation uses a system similar to a pacemaker to regulate the nerves controlling the bladder.

Stress incontinence

This type of treatment is indicated in women with moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence who do not wish to follow conservative treatment or for whom it has proven ineffective.

The choice of surgical technique to correct the symptoms of stress incontinence is currently based on each patient’s characteristics and the experience of the surgical team that will perform the operation.

Tension-free vaginal band for urinary incontinence

Tension-free vaginal tape surgery. It is the most popular technique and consists of placing a tape beneath the urethra (passageway from which urine is discharged) to provide greater support when straining and prevent urine from leaking out.

The technique has minimal complications and recovery is quick; the majority of cases do not require an overnight hospital stay.

There are other simpler techniques that can be used when individuals do not respond to the standard technique or when the specialist considers another method more appropriate given the patient’s characteristics.

Mixed incontinence

The treatment of these cases is complex and requires a very high degree of personalisation as well as a very complete study.

The specialist will evaluate the characteristics of each individual and the severity of their symptoms. This assessment is used to decide whether to treat the symptoms of the urge or stress type incontinence first. Alternatively, sometimes both sets of symptoms are treated from the beginning.

Vaginal cones

Vaginal cones. Cone-shaped weights that are placed inside the vagina to tone the pelvic floor muscles. There are five cones of the same size but with different weights, ranging from 20 to 100 g.

Vaginal cones or spheres

Vaginal spheres. These are spherical devices with a weight in the centre; they are also placed inside the vagina to tone the pelvic floor muscles. They are available as a single sphere or a pair.

Vaginal tampon

Tampons. These are vaginal tampons used to prevent losses of urine in cases of stress incontinence. Several sizes are available to provide a perfect fit to each woman’s vaginal capacity. They are hygienic, comfortable to wear and reusable. They are placed inside the vagina to support the urethra and prevent urine leaks, but without impeding the ability to urinate correctly.

Urethral pessary

Pessaries. These devices, available in different materials, shapes and sizes, are placed at the back of the vagina in order to maintain any fallen or prolapsed organs in their correct positions. Some of these devices are designed, specifically, for the treatment of urinary incontinence. The doctor or nurse will explain the hygienic measures, and also instruct you on how to insert and extract pessaries so that you can use them independently.

Vaginal atrophy is primarily caused by a decrease in female sex hormones (oestrogens) during menopause.

It consists of thinning and drying of the vaginal and vulval walls, leading to symptoms of vaginal dryness, irritation or discomfort during sexual intercourse.

Vaginal atrophy can aggravate the symptoms of urinary urgency (overactive bladder) or urge incontinence. Individuals in this situation are recommended a local treatment (applied around the vulva and vagina) of oestrogens applied as a cream, gel or vaginal tablets.

Hence postmenopausal women with urge incontinence are indicated the appropriate vaginal oestrogens in function of their drug therapy, as long as there are no contraindications (e.g., women with a history of breast cancer, etc.), in which case vaginal moisturisers may be indicated.

Substantiated information by:

Amelia Pérez González
Montserrat Espuña Pons
Sònia Anglès Acedo

Published: 20 February 2018
Updated: 20 February 2018

The donations that can be done through this webpage are exclusively for the benefit of Hospital Clínic of Barcelona through Fundació Clínic per a la Recerca Biomèdica and not for BBVA Foundation, entity that collaborates with the project of PortalClínic.


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